First, let’s quickly get what is a 301 redirect out of the way. A 301 redirect is a permanent redirect of a page from one URL to another. 301 redirects basically tell the search engine to send the site visitor to a different URL than the one they typed in or clicked on.
Now the question is will a 301 redirect pass on the original URL’s penalty to the new page or not?
That depends on the type of penalty with which your page got hit. A good practice would be to remove the features that brought on the penalty in the first place, such as spammy backlinks or keyword stuffing, in your new page. Alternatively, double 301 redirects have been shown to be effective in removing penalties as well.